Kratom Science | 2021

Assessing physiological dependence and withdrawal potential of mitragynine using schedule-controlled behaviour in rats.

March 31, 2020



Kratom is proposed to exhibit therapeutic potential as an opium substitute, but little is known about its dependence-producing profile, particularly of its main psychoactive compound, mitragynine (MG).


This study examined the dependence-producing effects of MG using operant-scheduled behaviour in rats and investigated the potential therapeutic effect of MG by comparing effects to buprenorphine in morphine-dependent rats using the same schedule-controlled behavioural task.


The effects of acutely administered MG and morphine were determined in rats trained to respond under fixed-ratio (FR) 10 schedule of food reinforcement. Next, the rats were administered MG and morphine twice daily for 14 consecutive days to determine if physiological dependence would develop by examining cessation of drug treatment and following antagonist-precipitated withdrawal. The study then examined the effects of MG substitution to suppress naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal effects on scheduled responding.


Acute doses of MG did not produce dose-related decreases on FR schedules of responding compared to morphine. Unlike morphine, MG-treated rats showed no suppression of response rates following cessation of MG treatment. However, withdrawal effects were evident for MG after precipitation by either naloxone or SR141716A (rimonabant), similar to morphine-treated rats. MG in higher doses (10 and 30 mg/kg) attenuated the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal effects while smaller doses of buprenorphine (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) were necessary to alleviate these effects.


The findings suggest that MG does not induce physiological dependence but can alleviate the physical symptoms associated with morphine withdrawal which represent the desired characteristics of novel pharmacotherapeutic interventions for managing opioid use disorder (OUD).
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Kratom Science | 2021 | |

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You'll be seeing quite a few changes within the brand, including an updated logo, packaging—and much more. We're celebrating 20 years in the industry and felt like it was time to freshen things up a bit. However, one thing that will always remain the same is the quality of our products. We'll always carry and supply the original Maeng Da™ and Bali Premium™—that we introduced to the market in 2001 as well as the service that you've come to expect. This is year come with some surprises that will go hand-in-hand with the new brand - for example, new value oriented savings opportunities for both consumers and our vendor and distributor partners, a NEW local Vendor Locator Map and or course a handful of exciting new products like our new Kratomade™ instant, flavored extracts and the first ever Salt-Based (SB-1™) extracts—two exciting game changers. As always, don't hesitate to reach out to us with any questions!

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