Below is a very interesting research article about the abuse potential of Kratom. Top US addiction specialists and researchers have determined that out Kratom’s main two active alkaloids Mitragynine & 7-Hydroxymitragynine that Mitragynine which is the most abundant alkaloid in Kratom does not have an abuse potential in fact it actually reduces morphine intake whereas the other alkaloid 7-Hydroxymitragynine which is found in only trace amounts in the leaf does have a big abuse potential and prior exposure to 7_Hydroxymitragynine increased subsequent morphine intake.
In the light of this new research it is very interesting and important to look at the ingredients of a particular Kratom product albeit plain leaf, enhanced leaf, extract or liquid to determine the Mitragynine & 7-Hydroxymitragynine content. From my own personal experience with products that contain a high amount 7-Hydroxymitragynine have much more abuse potential than products with only Mitragynine. The FDA have been quoted saying any Kratom product containing 7-Hydroxymitragynine would never be approved as a new dietary ingredient (NDI) due to the abuse potential of 7-Hydroxymitragynine.Most plain leaf does not have much 7-Hydroxymitragynine, only about 0.06% to only 0.003% but occasionally higher.
The best way to make sure that you are not consuming any 7-Hydroxymitragynine is to use a Mitragynine based extract that has little or no7-Hydroxymitragynine.
Here is an example of an extract that is the total alkaloid fraction extracted from the leaf. This could be correctly referred to as a 100% Kratom Alkaloid fraction in that the extract only contains kratom alkaloids and no other plant material. If you take this material and test it, 45% of the material is pure Mitragynine and accounts for 60.17% of the total alkaloid fraction or about 45mg of Mitragynine. There is about 1000 times more Mitragynine than 7-Hydroxymitragynine.
7-Hydroxymitragynine accounts for only 0.06% of the total alkaloid fraction or about 0.045mg of 7-Hydroxymitragynine. This is a very insignificant amount and will have no significance in the extract. You see on the graph below that 7-Hydroxymitragynine has a very small peak since it is only found in such a small amount.
Here is an example of a Mitragynine isolate that contains no other alkaloids apart from Mitragynine. With products like this you can determine that you are only getting Mitragynine and no 7-Hydroxymitragynine or other alkaloids.
Scott E. Hemby Scot McIntosh Francisco Leon Stephen J. Cutler Christopher R. McCurdy
First published: 27 June 2018 https://doi.org/10.1111/adb.12639
Kratom, derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, is receiving increased attention as an alternative to traditional opiates and as a replacement therapy for opiate dependence. Mitragynine (MG) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG) are major psychoactive constituents of kratom. While MG and 7-HMG share behavioral and analgesic properties with morphine, their reinforcing effects have not been examined to date. 7-HMG, but not MG, substituted for morphine self-administration in a dose-dependent manner in the rat self-administration paradigm. Following the substitution procedure, re-assessment of morphine self-administration revealed a significant increase following 7-HMG and a significant decrease following MG substitution. In a separate cohort, 7-HMG, but not MG, engendered and maintained intravenous self-administration in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of pretreatment with nalxonaxine (NLXZ), a μ1 opiate receptor antagonist, and naltrindole (NTI), a δ opiate receptor antagonist, on 7-HMG and morphine self-administration were also examined. Both NLXZ and NTI reduced 7-HMG self-administration, whereas only NLXZ decreased morphine intake. The present results are the first to demonstrate that 7-HMG is readily self-administered, and the reinforcing effects of 7-HMG are mediated in part by μ and δ opiate receptors. In addition, prior exposure to 7-HMG increased subsequent morphine intake whereas prior exposure to MG decreased morphine intake. The present findings indicate that MG does not have abuse potential and reduces morphine intake, desired characteristics of candidate pharmacotherapies for opiate addiction and withdrawal, whereas 7-HMG should be considered a kratom constituent with high abuse potential that may also increase the intake of other opiates.
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